DATETIME SELECT SELECT INTO DATE PAD STRING DYNAMIC SQL CURSOR MONEY FORMAT PERCENT STORED PROCEDURE SQL SERVER AGENT JOB OPTIMIZATION WHILE LOOP OVER PARTITION BY UPDATE
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How to convert from string to datetime?

Execute the following T-SQL scripts in Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) Query Editor to demonstrate T-SQL CONVERT and CAST functions in transforming string SQL date formats, string time & string datetime data to datetime data type. Practical examples for T-SQL DATE / DATETIME functions.

-- SQL Server string to date / datetime conversion - datetime string format sql server

-- MSSQL string to datetime conversion - convert char to date - convert varchar to date

-- Subtract 100 from style number (format) for yy instead yyyy (or ccyy with century)

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23 2012 11:01AM', 100) -- mon dd yyyy hh:mmAM (or PM)

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23 2012 11:01AM') -- 2012-10-23 11:01:00.000

 

-- Without century (yy) string date conversion - convert string to datetime function

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23 12 11:01AM', 0) -- mon dd yy hh:mmAM (or PM)

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23 12 11:01AM') -- 2012-10-23 11:01:00.000

 

-- Convert string to datetime sql - convert string to date sql - sql dates format

-- T-SQL convert string to datetime - SQL Server convert string to date

SELECT convert(datetime, '10/23/2016', 101) -- mm/dd/yyyy

SELECT convert(datetime, '2016.10.23', 102) -- yyyy.mm.dd ANSI date with century

SELECT convert(datetime, '23/10/2016', 103) -- dd/mm/yyyy

SELECT convert(datetime, '23.10.2016', 104) -- dd.mm.yyyy

SELECT convert(datetime, '23-10-2016', 105) -- dd-mm-yyyy

-- mon types are nondeterministic conversions, dependent on language setting

SELECT convert(datetime, '23 OCT 2016', 106) -- dd mon yyyy

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23, 2016', 107) -- mon dd, yyyy

-- 2016-10-23 00:00:00.000

SELECT convert(datetime, '20:10:44', 108) -- hh:mm:ss

-- 1900-01-01 20:10:44.000

 

-- mon dd yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmmAM (or PM) - sql time format - SQL Server datetime format

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23 2016 11:02:44:013AM', 109)

-- 2016-10-23 11:02:44.013

SELECT convert(datetime, '10-23-2016', 110) -- mm-dd-yyyy

SELECT convert(datetime, '2016/10/23', 111) -- yyyy/mm/dd

-- YYYYMMDD ISO date format works at any language setting - international standard

SELECT convert(datetime, '20161023')

SELECT convert(datetime, '20161023', 112) -- ISO yyyymmdd

-- 2016-10-23 00:00:00.000

SELECT convert(datetime, '23 Oct 2016 11:02:07:577', 113) -- dd mon yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmm

-- 2016-10-23 11:02:07.577

SELECT convert(datetime, '20:10:25:300', 114) -- hh:mm:ss:mmm(24h)

-- 1900-01-01 20:10:25.300

SELECT convert(datetime, '2016-10-23 20:44:11', 120) -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss(24h)

-- 2016-10-23 20:44:11.000

SELECT convert(datetime, '2016-10-23 20:44:11.500', 121) -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.mmm

-- 2016-10-23 20:44:11.500

 

-- Style 126 is ISO 8601 format: international standard - works with any language setting

SELECT convert(datetime, '2008-10-23T18:52:47.513', 126) -- yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss(.mmm)

-- 2008-10-23 18:52:47.513

SELECT convert(datetime, N'23 شوال 1429  6:52:47:513PM', 130) -- Islamic/Hijri date

SELECT convert(datetime, '23/10/1429  6:52:47:513PM',    131) -- Islamic/Hijri date

 

-- Convert DDMMYYYY format to datetime - sql server to date / datetime

SELECT convert(datetime, STUFF(STUFF('31012016',3,0,'-'),6,0,'-'), 105)

-- 2016-01-31 00:00:00.000

-- SQL Server T-SQL string to datetime conversion without century - some exceptions

-- nondeterministic means language setting dependent such as Mar/Mär/mars/márc

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23 16 11:02:44AM') -- Default

SELECT convert(datetime, '10/23/16', 1) -- mm/dd/yy U.S.

SELECT convert(datetime, '16.10.23', 2) -- yy.mm.dd ANSI

SELECT convert(datetime, '23/10/16', 3) -- dd/mm/yy UK/FR

SELECT convert(datetime, '23.10.16', 4) -- dd.mm.yy German

SELECT convert(datetime, '23-10-16', 5) -- dd-mm-yy Italian

SELECT convert(datetime, '23 OCT 16', 6) -- dd mon yy non-det.

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23, 16', 7) -- mon dd, yy non-det.

SELECT convert(datetime, '20:10:44', 8) -- hh:mm:ss

SELECT convert(datetime, 'Oct 23 16 11:02:44:013AM', 9) -- Default with msec

SELECT convert(datetime, '10-23-16', 10) -- mm-dd-yy U.S.

SELECT convert(datetime, '16/10/23', 11) -- yy/mm/dd Japan

SELECT convert(datetime, '161023', 12) -- yymmdd ISO

SELECT convert(datetime, '23 Oct 16 11:02:07:577', 13) -- dd mon yy hh:mm:ss:mmm EU dflt

SELECT convert(datetime, '20:10:25:300', 14) -- hh:mm:ss:mmm(24h)

SELECT convert(datetime, '2016-10-23 20:44:11',20) -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss(24h) ODBC can.

SELECT convert(datetime, '2016-10-23 20:44:11.500', 21)-- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.mmm ODBC

------------

-- SQL Datetime Data Type: Combine date & time string into datetime - sql hh mm ss

-- String to datetime - mssql datetime - sql convert date - sql concatenate string

DECLARE @DateTimeValue varchar(32), @DateValue char(8), @TimeValue char(6)

 

SELECT @DateValue = '20120718',

       @TimeValue = '211920'

SELECT @DateTimeValue =

convert(varchar, convert(datetime, @DateValue), 111)

+ ' ' + substring(@TimeValue, 1, 2)

+ ':' + substring(@TimeValue, 3, 2)

+ ':' + substring(@TimeValue, 5, 2)

SELECT

DateInput = @DateValue, TimeInput = @TimeValue,

DateTimeOutput = @DateTimeValue;

/*

DateInput   TimeInput   DateTimeOutput

20120718    211920      2012/07/18 21:19:20 */


/* DATETIME 8 bytes internal storage structure
   o 1st 4 bytes: number of days after the base date 1900-01-01

   o 2nd 4 bytes: number of clock-ticks (3.33 milliseconds) since midnight

DATETIME2 8 bytes (precision > 4) internal storage structure

   o 1st byte: precision like 7

   o middle 4 bytes: number of time units (100ns smallest) since midnight

   o last 3 bytes: number of days after the base date 0001-01-01

DATE 3 bytes internal storage structure
   o 3 bytes integer: number of days after the first date 0001-01-01

   o Note: hex byte order reversed

 

SMALLDATETIME 4 bytes internal storage structure
   o 1st 2 bytes: number of days after the base date 1900-01-01

   o 2nd 2 bytes: number of minutes since midnight   */       

SELECT CONVERT(binary(8), getdate()) -- 0x00009E4D 00C01272

SELECT CONVERT(binary(4), convert(smalldatetime,getdate())) -- 0x9E4D 02BC

-- This is how a datetime looks in 8 bytes

DECLARE @dtHex binary(8)= 0x00009966002d3344;

DECLARE @dt datetime = @dtHex

SELECT @dt   -- 2007-07-09 02:44:34.147

------------ */

------------

-- SQL Server 2012 New Date & Time Related Functions

------------

SELECT DATEFROMPARTS ( 2016, 10, 23 ) AS RealDate; -- 2016-10-23

 

SELECT DATETIMEFROMPARTS ( 2016, 10, 23, 10, 10, 10, 500 ) AS RealDateTime; -- 2016-10-23 10:10:10.500

 

SELECT EOMONTH('20140201');       -- 2014-02-28

SELECT EOMONTH('20160201');       -- 2016-02-29

SELECT EOMONTH('20160201',1);     -- 2016-03-31

 

SELECT FORMAT ( getdate(), 'yyyy/MM/dd hh:mm:ss tt', 'en-US' );   -- 2016/07/30 03:39:48 AM

SELECT FORMAT ( getdate(), 'd', 'en-US' );                        -- 7/30/2016

 

SELECT PARSE('SAT, 13 December 2014' AS datetime USING 'en-US') AS [Date&Time]; 

-- 2014-12-13 00:00:00.000

 

SELECT TRY_PARSE('SAT, 13 December 2014' AS datetime USING 'en-US') AS [Date&Time]; 

-- 2014-12-13 00:00:00.000

 

SELECT TRY_CONVERT(datetime, '13 December 2014' ) AS [Date&Time];  -- 2014-12-13 00:00:00.000

SELECT CONVERT(datetime2, sysdatetime()); AS [DateTime2];  -- 2016-02-12 13:09:24.0642891

------------

 

-- SQL convert seconds to HH:MM:SS - sql times format - sql hh mm

DECLARE  @Seconds INT

SET @Seconds = 20000

SELECT HH = @Seconds / 3600, MM = (@Seconds%3600) / 60, SS = (@Seconds%60)

/* HH    MM    SS

  5     33    20   */

------------

-- SQL Server Date Only from DATETIME column - get date only

-- T-SQL just date - truncate time from datetime - remove time part

------------

DECLARE @Now datetime = CURRENT_TIMESTAMP -- getdate()

SELECT  DateAndTime       = @Now      -- Date portion and Time portion

       ,DateString        = REPLACE(LEFT(CONVERT (varchar, @Now, 112),10),' ','-')

       ,[Date]            = CONVERT(DATE, @Now)  -- SQL Server 2008 and on - date part

       ,Midnight1         = dateadd(day, datediff(day,0, @Now), 0)

       ,Midnight2         = CONVERT(DATETIME,CONVERT(int, @Now))

       ,Midnight3         = CONVERT(DATETIME,CONVERT(BIGINT,@Now) &                                                           (POWER(Convert(bigint,2),32)-1))

/* DateAndTime    DateString  Date  Midnight1   Midnight2   Midnight3

2010-11-02 08:00:33.657 20101102    2010-11-02  2010-11-02 00:00:00.000 2010-11-02 00:00:00.000      2010-11-02 00:00:00.000 */

------------

-- SQL Server 2008 convert datetime to date - sql yyyy mm dd

SELECT      TOP (3)  OrderDate = CONVERT(date, OrderDate),

            Today = CONVERT(date, getdate())

FROM AdventureWorks2008.Sales.SalesOrderHeader

ORDER BY newid();

/*          OrderDate   Today

            2004-02-15  2012-06-18 .....*/

------------

-- SQL date yyyy mm dd - sqlserver yyyy mm dd - date format yyyymmdd

SELECT CONVERT(VARCHAR(10), GETDATE(), 111) AS [YYYY/MM/DD]

/*  YYYY/MM/DD

    2015/07/11    */

SELECT CONVERT(VARCHAR(10), GETDATE(), 112) AS [YYYYMMDD]

/*  YYYYMMDD

    20150711     */

SELECT REPLACE(CONVERT(VARCHAR(10), GETDATE(), 111),'/',' ') AS [YYYY MM DD]

/* YYYY MM DD

   2015 07 11    */
-- Converting to special (non-standard) date fomats: DD-MMM-YY
SELECT UPPER(REPLACE(CONVERT(VARCHAR,GETDATE(),6),' ','-'))
-- 07-MAR-14
------------

-- SQL convert date string to datetime - time set to 00:00:00.000 or 12:00AM

PRINT CONVERT(datetime,'07-10-2012',110)        -- Jul 10 2012 12:00AM

PRINT CONVERT(datetime,'2012/07/10',111)        -- Jul 10 2012 12:00AM

PRINT CONVERT(datetime,'20120710',  112)        -- Jul 10 2012 12:00AM          

------------

-- UNIX to SQL Server datetime conversion      

declare @UNIX bigint  = 1477216861;

select dateadd(ss,@UNIX,'19700101'); -- 2016-10-23 10:01:01.000
------------

-- String to date conversion - sql date yyyy mm dd - sql date formatting

-- SQL Server cast string to date - sql convert date to datetime

SELECT [Date] = CAST (@DateValue AS datetime)

-- 2012-07-18 00:00:00.000

 

-- SQL convert string date to different style - sql date string formatting

SELECT CONVERT(varchar, CONVERT(datetime, '20140508'), 100)

-- May  8 2014 12:00AM

-- SQL Server convert date to integer

DECLARE @Date datetime; SET @Date = getdate();

SELECT DateAsInteger = CAST (CONVERT(varchar,@Date,112) as INT);

-- Result: 20161225

 

-- SQL Server convert integer to datetime

DECLARE @iDate int

SET @iDate = 20151225

SELECT IntegerToDatetime = CAST(convert(varchar,@iDate) as datetime)

-- 2015-12-25 00:00:00.000

 

-- Alternates: date-only datetime values

-- SQL Server floor date - sql convert datetime

SELECT [DATE-ONLY]=CONVERT(DATETIME, FLOOR(CONVERT(FLOAT, GETDATE())))

SELECT [DATE-ONLY]=CONVERT(DATETIME, FLOOR(CONVERT(MONEY, GETDATE())))

-- SQL Server cast string to datetime

-- SQL Server datetime to string convert

SELECT [DATE-ONLY]=CAST(CONVERT(varchar, GETDATE(), 101) AS DATETIME)

-- SQL Server dateadd function - T-SQL datediff function

-- SQL strip time from date - MSSQL strip time from datetime

SELECT getdate() ,dateadd(dd, datediff(dd, 0, getdate()), 0)

-- Results: 2016-01-23 05:35:52.793 2016-01-23 00:00:00.000

-- String date  - 10 bytes of storage

SELECT [STRING DATE]=CONVERT(varchar,  GETDATE(), 110)

SELECT [STRING DATE]=CONVERT(varchar,  CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, 110)

-- Same results: 01-02-2012

 

-- SQL Server cast datetime as string - sql datetime formatting

SELECT stringDateTime=CAST (getdate() as varchar) -- Dec 29 2012  3:47AM

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----------

-- SQL date range BETWEEN operator

----------

-- SQL date range select - date range search - T-SQL date range query

-- Count Sales Orders for 2003 OCT-NOV

DECLARE  @StartDate DATETIME,  @EndDate DATETIME

SET @StartDate = convert(DATETIME,'10/01/2003',101)

SET @EndDate   = convert(DATETIME,'11/30/2003',101)

 

SELECT @StartDate, @EndDate

-- 2003-10-01 00:00:00.000  2003-11-30 00:00:00.000

SELECT dateadd(DAY,1,@EndDate),

       dateadd(ms,-3,dateadd(DAY,1,@EndDate))

-- 2003-12-01 00:00:00.000  2003-11-30 23:59:59.997

 

-- MSSQL date range select using >= and <

SELECT [Sales Orders for 2003 OCT-NOV] = COUNT(* )

FROM   Sales.SalesOrderHeader

WHERE  OrderDate >= @StartDate AND OrderDate < dateadd(DAY,1,@EndDate)

/* Sales Orders for 2003 OCT-NOV

   3668 */

 

-- Equivalent date range query using BETWEEN comparison

-- It requires a bit of trick programming

SELECT [Sales Orders for 2003 OCT-NOV] = COUNT(* )

FROM   Sales.SalesOrderHeader

WHERE  OrderDate BETWEEN @StartDate AND dateadd(ms,-3,dateadd(DAY,1,@EndDate))

-- 3668

 

USE AdventureWorks;

-- SQL between string dates

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE OrderDate BETWEEN '20040201' AND '20040210' -- Result: 108

 

-- SQL BETWEEN dates without time - time stripped - time removed - date part only

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE datediff(dd,0,OrderDate)

  BETWEEN datediff(dd,0,'20040201 12:11:39') AND datediff(dd,0,'20040210 14:33:19')

-- 108

-- BETWEEN is equivalent to >=...AND....<=

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE OrderDate

BETWEEN '2004-02-01 00:00:00.000' AND '2004-02-10  00:00:00.000'

/* Orders with OrderDates

'2004-02-10  00:00:01.000'  - 1 second after midnight (12:00AM)

'2004-02-10  00:01:00.000'  - 1 minute after midnight

'2004-02-10  01:00:00.000'  - 1 hour after midnight

are not included in the two queries above. */

-- To include the entire day of 2004-02-10 use:

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE OrderDate >= '20040201' AND OrderDate < '20040211'

----------

-- Calculate week ranges in a year

----------

DECLARE @Year INT = '2016';

WITH cteDays AS (SELECT DayOfYear=Dateadd(dd, number,

                 CONVERT(DATE, CONVERT(char(4),@Year)+'0101'))

                 FROM master.dbo.spt_values WHERE type='P'),

CTE AS (SELECT DayOfYear, WeekOfYear=DATEPART(week,DayOfYear)

        FROM cteDays WHERE YEAR(DayOfYear)= @YEAR)

SELECT WeekOfYear, StartOfWeek=MIN(DayOfYear), EndOfWeek=MAX(DayOfYear)

FROM CTE  GROUP BY WeekOfYear ORDER BY WeekOfYear

------------

-- Date validation function ISDATE - returns 1 or 0 - SQL datetime functions

------------

DECLARE @StringDate varchar(32)

SET @StringDate = '2011-03-15 18:50'

IF EXISTS( SELECT * WHERE ISDATE(@StringDate) = 1)

    PRINT 'VALID DATE: ' + @StringDate

ELSE

    PRINT 'INVALID DATE: ' + @StringDate

GO

-- Result: VALID DATE: 2011-03-15 18:50

 

DECLARE @StringDate varchar(32)

SET @StringDate = '20112-03-15 18:50'

IF EXISTS( SELECT * WHERE ISDATE(@StringDate) = 1)

    PRINT 'VALID DATE: ' + @StringDate

ELSE  PRINT 'INVALID DATE: ' + @StringDate

-- Result: INVALID DATE: 20112-03-15 18:50

-- First and last day of date periods - SQL Server 2008 and on code

DECLARE @Date DATE = '20161023'

SELECT ReferenceDate   = @Date 

SELECT FirstDayOfYear  = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(yy, datediff(yy,0, @Date),0))

SELECT LastDayOfYear   = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(yy, datediff(yy,0, @Date)+1,-1))

SELECT FDofSemester = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(qq,((datediff(qq,0,@Date)/2)*2),0))

SELECT LastDayOfSemester 

= CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(qq,((datediff(qq,0,@Date)/2)*2)+2,-1))

SELECT FirstDayOfQuarter  = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(qq, datediff(qq,0, @Date),0))

-- 2016-10-01

SELECT LastDayOfQuarter = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(qq, datediff(qq,0,@Date)+1,-1))

-- 2016-12-31

SELECT FirstDayOfMonth = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(mm, datediff(mm,0, @Date),0))

SELECT LastDayOfMonth  = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(mm, datediff(mm,0, @Date)+1,-1))

SELECT FirstDayOfWeek  = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(wk, datediff(wk,0, @Date),0))

SELECT LastDayOfWeek   = CONVERT(DATE, dateadd(wk, datediff(wk,0, @Date)+1,-1))

-- 2016-10-30

 

-- Month sequence generator - sequential numbers / dates

DECLARE @Date date = '2000-01-01'

SELECT MonthStart=dateadd(MM, number, @Date)

FROM  master.dbo.spt_values

WHERE type='P' AND  dateadd(MM, number, @Date) <= CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

ORDER BY MonthStart

/* MonthStart

2000-01-01

2000-02-01

2000-03-01 ....*/

 

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------------

-- Selected named date styles
------------

DECLARE @DateTimeValue varchar(32)

-- US-Style

SELECT @DateTimeValue = '10/23/2016'

SELECT StringDate=@DateTimeValue,

[US-Style] = CONVERT(datetime, @DatetimeValue)

 

SELECT @DateTimeValue = '10/23/2016 23:01:05'

SELECT StringDate = @DateTimeValue,

[US-Style] = CONVERT(datetime, @DatetimeValue)

 

-- UK-Style, British/French - convert string to datetime sql

-- sql convert string to datetime

SELECT @DateTimeValue = '23/10/16 23:01:05'

SELECT StringDate = @DateTimeValue,

[UK-Style] = CONVERT(datetime, @DatetimeValue, 3)

 

SELECT @DateTimeValue = '23/10/2016 04:01 PM'

SELECT StringDate = @DateTimeValue,

[UK-Style] = CONVERT(datetime, @DatetimeValue, 103)

 

-- German-Style

SELECT @DateTimeValue = '23.10.16 23:01:05'

SELECT StringDate = @DateTimeValue,

[German-Style] = CONVERT(datetime, @DatetimeValue, 4)

 

SELECT @DateTimeValue = '23.10.2016 04:01 PM'

SELECT StringDate = @DateTimeValue,

[German-Style] = CONVERT(datetime, @DatetimeValue, 104)

------------ 

 

-- Double conversion to US-Style 107 with century: Oct 23, 2016

SET @DateTimeValue='10/23/16'

SELECT StringDate=@DateTimeValue,

[US-Style] = CONVERT(varchar, CONVERT(datetime, @DateTimeValue),107)

 

-- Using DATEFORMAT - UK-Style - SQL dateformat

SET @DateTimeValue='23/10/16'

SET DATEFORMAT dmy

SELECT StringDate=@DateTimeValue,

[Date Time] = CONVERT(datetime, @DatetimeValue)

-- Using DATEFORMAT - US-Style

SET DATEFORMAT mdy
-- Finding out date format for a session

SELECT session_id, date_format from sys.dm_exec_sessions

------------

  -- Convert date string from DD/MM/YYYY UK format to MM/DD/YYYY US format
DECLARE @UKdate char(10) = '15/03/2016'
SELECT CONVERT(CHAR(10), CONVERT(datetime, @UKdate,103),101)

-- 03/15/2016

-- DATEPART datetime function example - SQL Server datetime functions

SELECT * FROM Northwind.dbo.Orders

WHERE DATEPART(YEAR, OrderDate) = '1996' AND

      DATEPART(MONTH,OrderDate) = '07'   AND

      DATEPART(DAY, OrderDate)  = '10'

 

-- Alternate syntax for DATEPART example

SELECT * FROM Northwind.dbo.Orders

WHERE YEAR(OrderDate)         = '1996' AND

      MONTH(OrderDate)        = '07'   AND

      DAY(OrderDate)          = '10'

------------

-- T-SQL calculate the number of business days function / UDF - exclude SAT & SUN

------------

CREATE FUNCTION fnBusinessDays (@StartDate DATETIME, @EndDate   DATETIME)

RETURNS INT AS

  BEGIN

    IF (@StartDate IS NULL OR @EndDate IS NULL)  RETURN (0)

    DECLARE  @i INT = 0;

    WHILE (@StartDate <= @EndDate)

      BEGIN

        SET @i = @i + CASE

                        WHEN datepart(dw,@StartDate) BETWEEN 2 AND 6 THEN 1

                        ELSE 0

                      END 

        SET @StartDate = @StartDate + 1

      END  -- while 

    RETURN (@i)

  END -- function

GO

SELECT dbo.fnBusinessDays('2016-01-01','2016-12-31')

-- 261

------------

-- T-SQL DATENAME function usage for weekdays

SELECT DayName=DATENAME(weekday, OrderDate), SalesPerWeekDay = COUNT(*)

FROM AdventureWorks2008.Sales.SalesOrderHeader

GROUP BY DATENAME(weekday, OrderDate), DATEPART(weekday,OrderDate)

ORDER BY DATEPART(weekday,OrderDate)

/* DayName   SalesPerWeekDay

Sunday      4482

Monday      4591

Tuesday     4346.... */

 

-- DATENAME application for months

SELECT MonthName=DATENAME(month, OrderDate), SalesPerMonth = COUNT(*)

FROM AdventureWorks2008.Sales.SalesOrderHeader

GROUP BY DATENAME(month, OrderDate), MONTH(OrderDate) ORDER BY MONTH(OrderDate)

/* MonthName      SalesPerMonth

January           2483

February          2686

March             2750

April             2740....  */

 

-- Getting month name from month number

SELECT DATENAME(MM,dateadd(MM,7,-1))  -- July

       ARTICLE - Essential SQL Server Date, Time and DateTime Functions
       ARTICLE - Demystifying the SQL Server DATETIME Datatype

------------
-- Extract string date from text with PATINDEX pattern matching

-- Apply sql server string to date conversion

------------

USE tempdb;

go

CREATE TABLE InsiderTransaction (

      InsiderTransactionID int identity primary key,

      TradeDate datetime,

      TradeMsg varchar(256),

      ModifiedDate datetime default (getdate()))

-- Populate table with dummy data

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN QABC Hammer, Bruce D. CSO 09-02-08 Buy 2,000 6.10')

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN QABC Schmidt, Steven CFO 08-25-08 Buy 2,500 6.70')

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN QABC  Hammer, Bruce D. CSO  08-20-08 Buy 3,000 8.59')

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN QABC Walters,  Jeff CTO 08-15-08  Sell 5,648 8.49')

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN  QABC  Walters, Jeff CTO   08-15-08 Option Execute 5,648 2.15')

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN QABC Hammer, Bruce D. CSO 07-31-08  Buy 5,000 8.05')

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN QABC Lennot, Mark B. Director  08-31-07 Buy 1,500 9.97')

INSERT InsiderTransaction (TradeMsg) VALUES(

'INSIDER TRAN QABC  O''Neal, Linda COO  08-01-08 Sell 5,000 6.50') 

 

-- Extract dates from stock trade message text

-- Pattern match for MM-DD-YY using the PATINDEX string function

SELECT TradeDate=substring(TradeMsg,

       patindex('%[01][0-9]-[0123][0-9]-[0-9][0-9]%', TradeMsg),8)

FROM InsiderTransaction

WHERE  patindex('%[01][0-9]-[0123][0-9]-[0-9][0-9]%', TradeMsg) > 0

/* Partial results

TradeDate

09-02-08

08-25-08

08-20-08 */

 

-- Update table with extracted date

-- Convert string date to datetime

UPDATE InsiderTransaction

SET TradeDate = convert(datetime,  substring(TradeMsg,

       patindex('%[01][0-9]-[0123][0-9]-[0-9][0-9]%', TradeMsg),8))

WHERE  patindex('%[01][0-9]-[0123][0-9]-[0-9][0-9]%', TradeMsg) > 0

 

SELECT * FROM InsiderTransaction ORDER BY TradeDate desc

/* Partial results

InsiderTransactionID    TradeDate   TradeMsg    ModifiedDate

1     2008-09-02 00:00:00.000 INSIDER TRAN QABC Hammer, Bruce D. CSO 09-02-08 Buy 2,000 6.10      2008-12-22 20:25:19.263

2     2008-08-25 00:00:00.000 INSIDER TRAN QABC Schmidt, Steven CFO 08-25-08 Buy 2,500 6.70      2008-12-22 20:25:19.263 */

-- Cleanup task

DROP TABLE InsiderTransaction

 

/************

VALID DATE RANGES FOR DATE / DATETIME DATA TYPES

 

DATE (3 bytes) date range:

January 1, 1 A.D. through December 31, 9999 A.D.

 

SMALLDATETIME (4 bytes) date range:

January 1, 1900 through June 6, 2079

 

DATETIME (8 bytes) date range:

January 1, 1753 through December 31, 9999

 

DATETIME2 (6-8 bytes) date range:

January 1, 1 A.D. through December 31, 9999 A.D.

 

-- The statement below will give a date range error

SELECT CONVERT(smalldatetime, '2110-01-01')

/* Msg 242, Level 16, State 3, Line 1

The conversion of a varchar data type to a smalldatetime data type

resulted in an out-of-range value. */

************/

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------------

-- SQL CONVERT DATE/DATETIME script applying table variable

------------

-- SQL Server convert date

-- Datetime column is converted into date only string column

DECLARE @sqlConvertDate TABLE ( DatetimeColumn datetime,

                                DateColumn char(10));

INSERT @sqlConvertDate (DatetimeColumn) SELECT GETDATE()

 

UPDATE @sqlConvertDate

SET DateColumn = CONVERT(char(10), DatetimeColumn, 111)

SELECT * FROM @sqlConvertDate

 

-- SQL Server convert datetime - String date column converted into datetime column

UPDATE @sqlConvertDate

SET DatetimeColumn = CONVERT(Datetime, DateColumn, 111)

SELECT * FROM @sqlConvertDate

 

-- Equivalent formulation - SQL Server cast datetime

UPDATE @sqlConvertDate

SET DatetimeColumn = CAST(DateColumn AS datetime)

SELECT * FROM @sqlConvertDate

/* First results

DatetimeColumn                DateColumn

2012-12-25 15:54:10.363       2012/12/25 */

/* Second results:

DatetimeColumn                DateColumn

2012-12-25 00:00:00.000       2012/12/25  */

------------

-- SQL date sequence generation with dateadd & table variable

-- SQL Server cast datetime to string - SQL Server insert default values method

DECLARE @Sequence table (Sequence int identity(1,1))

DECLARE @i int; SET @i = 0

WHILE ( @i < 500)

BEGIN

      INSERT @Sequence DEFAULT VALUES

      SET @i = @i + 1

END

SELECT DateSequence = CAST(dateadd(day, Sequence,getdate()) AS varchar)

FROM @Sequence

/* Partial results:

DateSequence

Dec 31 2008  3:02AM

Jan  1 2009  3:02AM

Jan  2 2009  3:02AM

Jan  3 2009  3:02AM

Jan  4 2009  3:02AM */

 

-- SETTING FIRST DAY OF WEEK TO SUNDAY

SET DATEFIRST 7;

SELECT @@DATEFIRST

-- 7

SELECT CAST('2016-10-23' AS date) AS SelectDate

    ,DATEPART(dw, '2016-10-23') AS DayOfWeek;

-- 2016-10-23     1

 

------------

-- SQL Last Week calculations

------------

-- SQL last Friday - Implied string to datetime conversions in dateadd & datediff

DECLARE @BaseFriday CHAR(8), @LastFriday datetime, @LastMonday datetime

SET @BaseFriday = '19000105'

SELECT @LastFriday = dateadd(dd,

          (datediff (dd, @BaseFriday, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP) / 7) * 7, @BaseFriday)

SELECT [Last Friday] = @LastFriday

-- Result: 2008-12-26 00:00:00.000

 

-- SQL last Monday (last week's Monday)

SELECT @LastMonday=dateadd(dd,

          (datediff (dd, @BaseFriday, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP) / 7) * 7 - 4, @BaseFriday)

SELECT [Last Monday]= @LastMonday 

-- Result: 2008-12-22 00:00:00.000

 

-- SQL last week - SUN - SAT

SELECT [Last Week] = CONVERT(varchar,dateadd(day, -1, @LastMonday), 101)+ ' - ' +

                     CONVERT(varchar,dateadd(day, 1,  @LastFriday), 101)

-- Result: 12/21/2008 - 12/27/2008

 

-----------------

-- Specific day calculations

------------

-- First day of current month

SELECT dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate()), 0)

 -- 15th day of current month

SELECT dateadd(day,14,dateadd(month,datediff(month,0,getdate()),0))

-- First Monday of current month

SELECT dateadd(day, (9-datepart(weekday, 

       dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate()), 0)))%7, 

       dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate()), 0))

-- Next Monday calculation from the reference date which was a Monday

DECLARE @Now datetime = GETDATE();

DECLARE @NextMonday datetime = dateadd(dd, ((datediff(dd, '19000101', @Now)

                               / 7) * 7) + 7, '19000101');

SELECT [Now]=@Now, [Next Monday]=@NextMonday

-- Last Friday of current month

SELECT dateadd(day, -7+(6-datepart(weekday, 

       dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate())+1, 0)))%7, 

       dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate())+1, 0))

-- First day of next month

SELECT dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate())+1, 0)

-- 15th of next month

SELECT dateadd(day,14, dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate())+1, 0))

-- First Monday of next month

SELECT dateadd(day, (9-datepart(weekday, 

       dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate())+1, 0)))%7, 

       dateadd(month, datediff(month, 0, getdate())+1, 0))

 

------------

-- SQL Last Date calculations

------------

-- Last day of prior month - Last day of previous month

SELECT convert( varchar, dateadd(dd,-1,dateadd(mm, datediff(mm,0,getdate() ), 0)),101)

-- 01/31/2019

-- Last day of current month

SELECT convert( varchar, dateadd(dd,-1,dateadd(mm, datediff(mm,0,getdate())+1, 0)),101)

-- 02/28/2019

-- Last day of prior quarter - Last day of previous quarter

SELECT convert( varchar, dateadd(dd,-1,dateadd(qq, datediff(qq,0,getdate() ), 0)),101)

-- 12/31/2018

-- Last day of current quarter - Last day of current quarter

SELECT convert( varchar, dateadd(dd,-1,dateadd(qq, datediff(qq,0,getdate())+1, 0)),101)

-- 03/31/2019

-- Last day of prior year - Last day of previous year

SELECT convert( varchar, dateadd(dd,-1,dateadd(yy, datediff(yy,0,getdate() ), 0)),101)

-- 12/31/2018

-- Last day of current year

SELECT convert( varchar, dateadd(dd,-1,dateadd(yy, datediff(yy,0,getdate())+1, 0)),101)

-- 12/31/2019

------------

-- SQL Server dateformat and language setting

------------

-- T-SQL set language - String to date conversion

SET LANGUAGE us_english

SELECT CAST('2018-03-15' AS datetime)

-- 2018-03-15 00:00:00.000

 

SET LANGUAGE british

SELECT CAST('2018-03-15' AS datetime)

/* Msg 242, Level 16, State 3, Line 2

The conversion of a varchar data type to a datetime data type resulted in

an out-of-range value.

*/

SELECT CAST('2018-15-03' AS datetime)

-- 2018-03-15 00:00:00.000

 

SET LANGUAGE us_english

 

-- SQL dateformat with language dependency

SELECT name, alias, dateformat

FROM sys.syslanguages

WHERE langid in (0,1,2,4,5,6,7,10,11,13,23,31)

GO

/* 

name        alias             dateformat

us_english  English           mdy

Deutsch     German            dmy

Français    French            dmy

Dansk       Danish            dmy

Español     Spanish           dmy

Italiano    Italian           dmy

Nederlands  Dutch             dmy

Suomi       Finnish           dmy

Svenska     Swedish           ymd

magyar      Hungarian         ymd

British     British English   dmy

Arabic      Arabic            dmy */

------------

 

-- Generate list of months

;WITH CTE AS (

      SELECT      1 MonthNo, CONVERT(DATE, '19000101') MonthFirst

      UNION ALL

      SELECT      MonthNo+1, DATEADD(Month, 1, MonthFirst)

      FROM  CTE WHERE   Month(MonthFirst) < 12   )

SELECT      MonthNo AS MonthNumber, DATENAME(MONTH, MonthFirst) AS MonthName

FROM  CTE ORDER BY MonthNo

/* MonthNumber    MonthName

      1           January

      2           February

      3           March  ... */

------------

Related articles:

The ultimate guide to the datetime datatypes

CAST and CONVERT (Transact-SQL)

CAST and CONVERT

 

 
Exam Prep 70-461
Exam 70-461
DATETIME SELECT SELECT INTO DATE PAD STRING DYNAMIC SQL CURSOR MONEY FORMAT PERCENT STORED PROCEDURE SQL SERVER AGENT JOB OPTIMIZATION WHILE LOOP OVER PARTITION BY UPDATE